WH1 EFFECTS OF RELIGION IN EUROPE DURING MIDDLE AGES

4) Nature which is neither created nor creative; that is, God as the end of entire universe. All motion ends where it began; God returns to Himself, and the things become deified, they resolve themselves in the divine all.

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Roman city life and culture changed greatly in the early Middle Ages. Although Italian cities remained inhabited, they contracted significantly in size. Rome, for instance, shrank from a population of hundreds of thousands to around 30,000 by the end of the 6th century. were converted into and city walls remained in use. In Northern Europe, cities also shrank, while civic monuments and other public buildings were raided for building materials. The establishment of new kingdoms often meant some growth for the towns chosen as capitals. Although there had been , the suffered periods of persecution after the conversion of the empire to Christianity. Officially they were tolerated, if subject to conversion efforts, and at times were even encouraged to settle in new areas.


SOURCE …Ellis and Esler, World History. Prentice Hall, 2007

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were officially required to be subordinate to some male, whether their father, husband, or other kinsman. Widows, who were often allowed much control over their own lives, were still restricted legally. Women's work generally consisted of household or other domestically inclined tasks. Peasant women were usually responsible for taking care of the household, child-care, as well as gardening and animal husbandry near the house. They could supplement the household income by spinning or brewing at home. At harvest-time, they were also expected to help with field-work. Townswomen, like peasant women, were responsible for the household, and could also engage in trade. What trades were open to women varied by country and period. Noblewomen were responsible for running a household, and could occasionally be expected to handle estates in the absence of male relatives, but they were usually restricted from participation in military or government affairs. The only role open to women in the Church was that of , as they were unable to become priests.


Peasants in the Middle Ages and Their Role in Rural Life

In the 13th century —the and the —who swore vows of poverty and earned their living by begging, were approved by the papacy. Religious groups such as the and the also attempted to return to the life of early Christianity in the middle 12th and early 13th centuries, but they were condemned as heretical by the papacy. Others joined the , another heretical movement condemned by the papacy. In 1209, a crusade was preached against the Cathars, the , which in combination with the , eliminated them.

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In the 13th century —the and the —who swore vows of poverty and earned their living by begging, were approved by the papacy. Religious groups such as the and the also attempted to return to the life of early Christianity in the middle 12th and early 13th centuries, but they were condemned as heretical by the papacy. Others joined the , another heretical movement condemned by the papacy. In 1209, a crusade was preached against the Cathars, the , which in combination with the , eliminated them.

Conversion and Narrative: Reading and Religious

The High Middle Ages was a period of great religious movements. Besides the Crusades and monastic reforms, people sought to participate in new forms of religious life. New monastic orders were founded, including the and the . The latter especially expanded rapidly in their early years under the guidance of (d. 1153). These new orders were formed in response to the feeling of the laity that Benedictine monasticism no longer met the needs of the laymen, who along with those wishing to enter the religious life wanted a return to the simpler monasticism of early Christianity, or to live an . were also encouraged. Old pilgrimage sites such as Rome, Jerusalem, and received increasing numbers of visitors, and new sites such as and rose to prominence.